Is the mildest form of periodontal disease. It causes the gum to become red, swollen, and to bleed easily. There is usually little or no discomfort at this stage. Gingivitis is often caused by inadequate oral hygiene. Gingivities is reversible with professional tratment and good oral home care.

Factors that may contribute to gingivitis include, diabetes, smoking, aging, gentic predisposition, systemic diseases and conditions, stress, inadequate nutrition, puberty,hormonal fluctuations, pregnancy, substances abuse, HIV infection, and certain medication uses.


Untreated gingivitis can advance to periodontitis. With time, plaque can spread and grow below the gum line. Toxins produced by the bacteria in plaque irritate the gums. The toxins stimulate a chronic inflammatory response in which the body in essence turns on itself, and the tissues and bone that support the teeth are broken down and destroyed. Gums separate from the teeth, orming pockets (spaces between the teeth and gum) that become infected. As the disease progresses, the pockets deepen and more gum tissue and bone are destroyed. Often, this destructive process has very mild symptoms. Eventually, teeth can become loose and may have to be removed.

There are many forms of periodontitis. The most common ones include the follwing.

Agressive periodontitis occus in patients who are otherwis clinically healthy. common features include rapid attachment loss and bone destruction and familial aggregation.

Chronic periodontitis results in inflamation within the supporting tissues of the teeth, progressive attachment and bone loss. This is the most frequently occurring form of periodontitits and characterized by pocket formation and/or recession of the gingiva. It is prevalent in adults, but can occur in any age.

Periodontities as a manifestation of system disease often begins at a young age. Systemic conditions such as heart disease, respiratory disease, and diabetes are associated with this form of periodontitis.

Necrotizing periodontal disease is an infection characterized by necrosis of gingival tissues, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. These lesions are most commonaly observed in individuals with systemic conditions such HIV infection, malnutrition and immunosupression. 



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